Being based on his own experience, we run by own vision of the construction technology of frame house. We hereinafter will designate the main phases of construction, directing attention on those moments which are the most essential and it is necessary to control which particularly carefully.
We will consider construction of houses in climatic area of Moscow and Moscow Region having the appropriate operating temperature (climate control) and in most instances approximately identical structure of grounds. What represents frame technology of construction for our conditions? It is foundation, to which the carcass (skeleton) of future house is installed which is covered by chosen type of the roof coating, is warmed and is sheathed outside and inside by lining material. Generally it appears so:
Figure 1. The example of the design of frame wooden house
Figure 2. Design of frame house in overall view
1. The foundation of frame house
In our conditions under any frame house it will be enough basically girder foundation. Burial depths of such foundation should be defined on the grounds of Code 31-105-2002 «Designing and construction of energy-efficient one-apartment domestic houses with wooden skeleton» and of Code 55.13330.2011 «Houses residential one-apartment». Naturally, if to arrange under house the ground floor then all is a little more difficult, but all necessary types of works are specified again by above-stated documents. To any clearly that in a good manner constructed foundation — is guarantee of durability of the structure as a whole, therefore to its construction it is necessary to approach the most responsibly. What is meant? The first that it is necessary to make — it to oblige contractor to execute soil investigation for definition of its type and composition, as well as ground water level. Indeed the type of ground coat and ground water level influence both to bearing ability of the foundation and to condition of material, from which it is made (in this instance there is concrete). In this connection laboratory soil investigation very and is important very much. Important moment is foundation design determined on the grounds of conducted soil investigation, its reinforcing, the device of ventilation and drainage. In more detail the question of construction of the foundation will be considered hereinafter.
2. Skeleton and roof coating at home
Construction of the skeleton is one of the most important phases of erection of frame house. At this stage it is necessary to provide strength of building constructions (vertical arms, overlaps, rafter system), reliable steamisolation, waterproofing and tight roof design. That is why at this stage of construction it is necessary to control the ways of the joint of supporting structures rigidly, quality and the amount of placed steamisolation, waterproofing, heater (it is necessary to pay attention to exception of possible «thermal bypasses»), as well as quality of installation of the roof coating, glazing, doors (indeed if something from listed will be leakage then all work on warming can go for nothing).
Figure 3. The structure of walls of frame house
Figure 4. The structure of the roof coating of frame house
One more important detail which should be controlled while under construction. From correct device of floors operating temperature at least of ground floor of the house will depend. Indeed for nobody disagreeably to go on house when on floors small Tornado walks. At device of floors it is necessary to pay attention to design of boarding, indeed exactly it will hold load transmitted by the heat insulating material (it is meant that splined from below boarding will fall off sooner or later and all heat insulating material will lie in the basement). Besides it is necessary to try to exclude occurrence of «thermal bypasses» and in a quality manner assemble «counter floor», so that after the planks will give compression, it was not necessary to transfer all floor.
Figure 5. The structure of floors of frame house
We hope that overview of the design of frame house will be useful for those who is going to begin construction of the dwelling of such type and when choosing of contractor. Besides at literate construction of the houses constructed to this technology, at all it is not worse on energy efficiency of bar-shaped and brick houses, they at the same time possess a more low cost, limited times of construction and greater maintainability.