So to speak, official development of design documentation to construction, repair either reconstruction of country houses, economic constructions or engineering systems begins from the second phase — from outline design which we will consider more closely.
Purposes, task and stage-by-stage approach of outline design
Outline design is in essence of fact the terms of reference for designer. As opposed to designing, outline design is an official document; many decisions provided at this stage of development of design documentation, are taken into account at further work only after coordination with Customer and his sighting.
In preliminary design not tentative calculations are executed and particular sizes of construction object are fixed (rooms, ceilings heights are etc). Outline design are a full-time design work with total tie-in to real sizes and to the place.
The main purpose of outline designing is a clear definition of object specification of suburban construction and choice of necessary stylistic decoration pursuant to flavouring preferences of Customer.
At development of outline designing compilation of all residential and uninhabited premises to given areas and volumes takes place, facade decision is produced and many other tasks are solved.
Each phase of outline design solves determined task. Tasks multiplicity defines the structure of document itself — outline design. The phases of outline design in ultimate document spread on separate sheets, each of which is independent separate design consideration for determined tasks.
Complete outline design has following sheets:
General plot plan; General plan; Planning concept; Structural scheme of furniture arrangement; The plan of plumbing equipment peg and water drain conclusion points; The plan of electrical devices peg; The plan of electric lighting devices peg; The plan and bulletin of slots; Basic cuts; Apportionment of frontages on axes; Roofing plan; Apportionment of crossbarses; Perspective;
Totalled list of building materials, volumes and areas.
Totalled list of building materials – is whilst preliminary master budgeted calculation, purpose of which consists in aid to Customer in understanding of sizes of capital investments to future construction, in understanding of the amount and the nomenclature of necessary building materials and in the evaluation of their overall value.
As well on the first sheet of outline design is located general info of designed project of construction, such as:
General description of project and construction site; Description of the foundation type and overlaps; The cubic capacity of the main building material; The area of the roof coating, pergola, cantilevers; The area of the storeys, terraces, balconies.
By general plan is named base map (plan of the city or suburban settlement), on which the arrangement of ground area is noted, where it is planned to build house or economic construction.
Use of general plan allows to evaluate convenience of the arrangement and appeal of the section from the position of availability to all objects of the infrastructure.
By typical scales of general plan are 1:5000 or 1:10000.
Overall plan (or schematic view of planning organisation) is the map-plan of ground area of Customer who displays the arrangement of designing objects of construction, communications and infrastructures within the limits of the boundaries of given section and in view of features of local relief. On master plan is displayed peg of the building up to determined objects and conditions:
The peg to the boundaries of section — construction objects should be located ergonomically and herewith not to infringe norm and the rules of construction and not to create disadvantages to the neighbours; The peg of buildings to the communications — placement of residential house, bath and other constructions on territory should be convenient from the standpoint of possible connection of the central communications — electricity and gas (if there is — the water pipes and sewers); The peg to feeder roads for convenience of entrance to the house and garage; Schematically of planning organisation not only the objects of capital construction are noted, as well thereon logical zoning and division of section arise, streaks are marked and definition of the place for placement of independent communications and engineering structures is produced — wells, activated sludge plants or sump.
As such at creation of overall plan of the section, all buildings, communication systems and other elements be located in peg to future landscape works — neither of the objects should not hinder creation of maximum comfort and convenience on curtilage.
Planning concept – is detailed plan of construction without peg to distributing of communications inside the building, to the furniture and any other elements. In planning concept all premises with accurate observance of sizes in one plane are defined (length and width) and is given explication — is functional description of each premise with the indication of its area.
Planning concept is developed separately to each storey.
For Customer of outline design the planning concept afford ground to glance «from above» on each storey of future house and visually to evaluate ergonomics of the arrangement of residential rooms, bathrooms, larders and other premises.
Structural scheme of furniture arrangement: selection of correct and convenient furniture and its literate arrangement have the most important value for supplying of comfort residing of all tenants of the house. At works on designing of structural scheme of furniture arrangement the Customer and the executor should think in the long term — not for short time, but for long years. Therefore should be made a few important points:
Numerical composition of residents can change — it is necessary to take into account opportunity of quick device of new sleeping place (gambling, working) without having to of global furniture rearrangements and the more so of premises replanning; Children living in the house quickly grow — hence, regularly will change contents of children’s rooms. Therefore arrangement of the furniture in them is necessary to design in view of this circumstance;
Negligence in arrangement of the furniture can become the reason of serious discomfort while in service of the house, use of household equipment, the organisation of the space, interior formation.
About importance of given design works says bare fact that layout of the furniture in wooden house is considered finalised only after the signature of this sheet by Customer himself.
It is worth to note as well that at arrangement of the furniture it is recommended to take into account features of wooden houses — not each type furniture will be able comfortably, ergonomically and elegant fit in such dwelling. It is caused primarily design features of the tree.
The plan of plumbing equipment peg and water drain conclusion points: on given sheet of outline design points of the conclusion of sewage communications are designated — separately for each storey, where similar communications are provided. Water drain conclusion points as a rule go on one or a few «through-wall» ascending pipes passing strictly downwards — from top up to ground floor. Such way of execution is due to a maximum practicality and economical efficiency of accommodation of sewage system in private dwelling. And one of the most important purposes of all design works is optimisation of financial expenditures for economy of Customer’s money both at stage construction and while in service houses.
More during the design phase of general lay-out of building spaces it is necessary to execute lay-out so that the conclusions of the water drain on different storeys were in one point, one under other. If on each of the storeys a few bathrooms are provided, then optimum way of execution of the water drain is accommodation of the appropriate the amount of ascending pipes with their further connection under lower storey and connexion to the common system of sewage wastes — the central or autonomic.
We will finish on it consideration of such important development cycle of design documentation to construction, repair or reconstruction of suburban houses and economic constructions, as outline design and we will segue to the third and main phase — detail design which we will consider in following review.